elasticsearch rest api 快速上手

注:本文档中除无特别说明,请求方式均为GET。所有的请求均在Sense中测试通过

遵循的格式为

curl -X<REST Verb> <Node>:<Port>/<Index>/<Type>/<ID>

集群健康查看

epoch      timestamp cluster       status node.total node.data shards pri relo init unassign pending_tasks 
1441940569 11:02:49 elasticsearch yellow 1 1 7 7 0 0 7 0
host ip            heap.percent ram.percent load node.role master name     
acer 169.254.9.202 32 52 d * Mys-Tech

列出所有的indices

health status index              pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size pri.store.size 
yellow open .marvel-2015.09.11 1 1 3233 0 10.5mb 10.5mb
yellow open .marvel-2015.09.10 1 1 1996 0 3.9mb 3.9mb
yellow open news 5 1 3455 0 17.8mb 17.8mb

创建索引

使用PUT请求创建一个countries的索引

curl -XPUT http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries?pretty

输出:

{
"acknowledged": true
}

查看索引列表

curl -XGET http://127.0.0.1:9200/_cat/indices?v

输出:

health status index              pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size pri.store.size 
yellow open countries 5 1 0 0 575b 575b
yellow open .marvel-2015.09.11 1 1 3436 0 11.4mb 11.4mb
yellow open .marvel-2015.09.10 1 1 1996 0 3.9mb 3.9mb
yellow open news 5 1 3455 0 17.8mb 17.8mb

索引文档

  • 使用自定义id索引文档

使用PUT请求创建一个索引为countries类型为country的文档。其文档编号为1,文档内容包含namecapital

curl -XPUT http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/1?pretty -d '
{
"name": "中国",
"capital": "北京"
}'

输出:

{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "1",
"_version": 1,
"created": true
}
  • 使用系统分配的id索引文档
curl -XPOST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country?pretty -d '
{
"name": "韩国",
"capital": "首尔"
}'

注意:使用系统分配的id时使用POST方式提交文档,且在索引\类型url格式中不再有id

输出:

{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "AU-6awteDgxJZYVN-E5I",
"_version": 1,
"created": true
}

查询文档

使用自定义id查询文档

curl -XGET http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/1?pretty

输出:

{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "1",
"_version": 1,
"found": true,
"_source": {
"name": "中国",
"capital": "北京"
}
}

使用系统分配的id查询

GET http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/AU-6awteDgxJZYVN-E5I?pretty

输出:

{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "AU-6awteDgxJZYVN-E5I",
"_version": 1,
"found": true,
"_source": {
"name": "韩国",
"capital": "首尔"
}
}

查看索引信息

GET http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/

输出:

{
"countries": {
"aliases": {},
"mappings": {
"country": {
"properties": {
"capital": {
"type": "string"
},
"name": {
"type": "string"
}
}
}
},
"settings": {
"index": {
"creation_date": "1441941497754",
"uuid": "UaoQ_WCATaiy5w736cjw2A",
"number_of_replicas": "1",
"number_of_shards": "5",
"version": {
"created": "1070199"
}
}
},
"warmers": {}
}
}

删除索引

删除myindex索引

DELETE http://127.0.0.1:9200/myindex/?pretty

输出:

{
"acknowledged": true
}

索引或替换一个文档

根据文档id索引或替换文档,若存在则修改替换,否则索引该文档。

  • 使用已存在的id

修改文档id为1的国家信息。

PUT 'http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/1?pretty'
{
"name": "日本",
"capital": "东京"
}

查询其是否已修改

GET http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/1?pretty

输出:

{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "1",
"_version": 2,
"found": true,
"_source": {
"name": "日本",
"capital": "东京"
}
}

可见国家信息已由中国变为日本,其首都信息也发生了变化

  • 使用不存在的id则是索引文档
PUT http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/2?pretty
{
"name": "澳大利亚",
"capital": "悉尼"
}

输出:

{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "2",
"_version": 1,
"created": true
}

修改文档

  • 按doc方式更新文档

doc方式修改文档id为1的文档

POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/1/_update?pretty
{
"doc": { "name": "美国","capital": "华盛顿"}
}

其中doc是固定写法,其内容为要修改的文档内容

  • 按script方式更新文档

script方式修改文档id为1的文档

POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/1/_update?pretty
{
"script": "ctx._source.name=\"加拿大\";ctx._source.capital=\"渥太华\""
}

删除文档

  • 按文档id删除
DELETE http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/1?pretty

输出:

{
"found": true,
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "1",
"_version": 6
}
  • 根据查询结果删除
DELETE http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/_query?pretty
{
"query": { "match": { "name": "美国" } }
}

输出:

{
"_indices": {
"countries": {
"_shards": {
"total": 5,
"successful": 5,
"failed": 0
}
}
}
}

查询是否还有name为美国的文档

GET http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/_query
{
"query": { "match_all": { "name": "美国" } }
}

批量处理

_bulk api

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/docs-bulk.html

遵循格式

/_bulk, /{index}/_bulk, {index}/{type}/_bulk

action_and_meta_data\n
optional_source\n
action_and_meta_data\n
optional_source\n

支持的action有index, create, delete, update

indexcreate在下一行跟上要索引的doc
delete则不需要
update在下一行跟上docscript

  • 批量索引文档
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/_bulk?pretty
{"index":{"_id":"1"}}
{"name": "中国","capital": "北京"}
{"index":{"_id":"2"}}
{"name": "美国","capital": "华盛顿"}
{"index":{"_id":"3"}}
{"name": "日本","capital": "东京"}
{"index":{"_id":"4"}}
{"name": "澳大利亚","capital": "悉尼"}
{"index":{"_id":"5"}}
{"name": "印度","capital": "新德里"}
{"index":{"_id":"6"}}
{"name": "韩国","capital": "首尔"}

以上请求将会批量索引6个文档。

输出:

{
"took": 4,
"errors": false,
"items": [
{
"index": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "1",
"_version": 1,
"status": 201
}
},
{
"index": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "2",
"_version": 2,
"status": 200
}
},
{
"index": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "3",
"_version": 1,
"status": 201
}
},
{
"index": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "4",
"_version": 1,
"status": 201
}
},
{
"index": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "5",
"_version": 1,
"status": 201
}
},
{
"index": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "6",
"_version": 1,
"status": 201
}
}
]
}
  • 批量执行,含index、create、delete、update
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/_bulk?pretty
{"index":{"_id":"7"}}
{"name": "新加坡","capital": "渥太华"}
{"create":{"_id":"8"}}
{"name": "德国","capital": "柏林"}
{"update":{"_id":"1"}}
{"doc": {"name": "法国","capital": "巴黎" }}
{"update":{"_id":"3"}}
{"script": "ctx._source.name = \"法国\";ctx._source.capital = \"巴黎\""}
{"delete":{"_id":"2"}}

输出:

{
"took": 40,
"errors": false,
"items": [
{
"index": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "7",
"_version": 1,
"status": 201
}
},
{
"create": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "8",
"_version": 1,
"status": 201
}
},
{
"update": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "1",
"_version": 2,
"status": 200
}
},
{
"update": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "3",
"_version": 2,
"status": 200
}
},
{
"delete": {
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "2",
"_version": 3,
"status": 200,
"found": true
}
}
]
}
  • 导入数据

countries.json

{"index":{"_id":"1"}}
{"name": "新加坡","capital": "渥太华"}
{"index":{"_id":"2"}}
{"name": "韩国","capital": "首尔"}
{"index":{"_id":"3"}}
{"name": "朝鲜","capital": "平壤"}
{"index":{"_id":"4"}}
{"name": "日本","capital": "东京"}
{"index":{"_id":"5"}}
{"name": "马来西亚","capital": "吉隆坡"}

使用curl的--data-binary参数导入数据

curl XPOST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/_bulk?pretty --data-binary @countries.json

或者使用postman导入

http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/country/_bulk?pretty
{"index":{"_id":"1"}}
{"name": "新加坡","capital": "渥太华"}
{"index":{"_id":"2"}}
{"name": "韩国","capital": "首尔"}
{"index":{"_id":"3"}}
{"name": "朝鲜","capital": "平壤"}
{"index":{"_id":"4"}}
{"name": "日本","capital": "东京"}
{"index":{"_id":"5"}}
{"name": "马来西亚","capital": "吉隆坡"}

search api

  • GET方式搜索(queryString)
GET http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?q=*&pretty

注:q=*将匹配索引中的所有文档

输出:

{
"took": 1,
"timed_out": false,
"_shards": {
"total": 5,
"successful": 5,
"failed": 0
},
"hits": {
"total": 10,
"max_score": 1,
"hits": [
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "4",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "日本",
"capital": "东京"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "_query",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"query": {
"match_all": {
"name": "美国"
}
}
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "5",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "印度",
"capital": "新德里"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "6",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "韩国",
"capital": "首尔"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "1",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "新加坡",
"capital": "渥太华"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "7",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "新加坡",
"capital": "渥太华"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "2",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "韩国",
"capital": "首尔"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "AU-6awteDgxJZYVN-E5I",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "韩国",
"capital": "首尔"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "8",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "德国",
"capital": "柏林"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "3",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "朝鲜",
"capital": "平壤"
}
}
]
}
}
  • POST方式搜索(含请求体query)
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"match_all": {}
}
}

输出:

{
"took": 1,
"timed_out": false,
"_shards": {
"total": 5,
"successful": 5,
"failed": 0
},
"hits": {
"total": 10,
"max_score": 1,
"hits": [
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "4",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "日本",
"capital": "东京"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "_query",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"query": {
"match_all": {
"name": "美国"
}
}
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "5",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "印度",
"capital": "新德里"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "6",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "韩国",
"capital": "首尔"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "1",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "新加坡",
"capital": "渥太华"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "7",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "新加坡",
"capital": "渥太华"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "2",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "韩国",
"capital": "首尔"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "AU-6awteDgxJZYVN-E5I",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "韩国",
"capital": "首尔"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "8",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "德国",
"capital": "柏林"
}
},
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "3",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "朝鲜",
"capital": "平壤"
}
}
]
}
}
  • 限定返回条目
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"match_all": {}
},
"size": 1
}

size控制返回条目,默认为10

输出:

{
"took": 1,
"timed_out": false,
"_shards": {
"total": 5,
"successful": 5,
"failed": 0
},
"hits": {
"total": 10,
"max_score": 1,
"hits": [
{
"_index": "countries",
"_type": "country",
"_id": "4",
"_score": 1,
"_source": {
"name": "日本",
"capital": "东京"
}
}
]
}
}
  • 分页(form,size)
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"match_all": {}
},
"from": 2,
"size": 2
}

使用fromsize来翻页。其中form默认为0,size默认为10

  • 排序(sort)
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"match_all": {}
},
"sort": [
{
"name": {
"order": "desc"
}
}
]
}

其中name为排序字段

限定返回字段

POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"match_all": {}
},
"_source": ["name"]
}

使用_source来限定返回的字段。这里只返回name

高级查询

  • match_phrase
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"match_phrase": {
"name": "韩国"
}
}
}
  • must
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"bool": {
"must": [
{"match": {
"name": "日本"
}},
{"match": {
"capital": "东京"
}}
]
}
}
}
  • should
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"bool": {
"should": [
{"match": {
"name": "日本"
}},
{"match": {
"name": "韩国"
}}
]
}
}
}
  • must_not

    POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
    {
    "query": {
    "bool": {
    "must_not": [
    {"match": {
    "name": "日本"
    }},
    {"match": {
    "name": "韩国"
    }}
    ]
    }
    }
    }
  • filter

POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"query": {
"match_all": {}
},
"filter": {
"term": {
"capital": "东京"
}
}
}
  • 聚合(aggs)
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/countries/_search?pretty
{
"size": 0,
"aggs": {
"group_by_name": {
"terms": {
"field": "name"
}
}
}
}

name统计分组文档数

输出:

{
"took": 1,
"timed_out": false,
"_shards": {
"total": 5,
"successful": 5,
"failed": 0
},
"hits": {
"total": 10,
"max_score": 0,
"hits": []
},
"aggregations": {
"group_by_name": {
"doc_count_error_upper_bound": 0,
"sum_other_doc_count": 0,
"buckets": [
{
"key": "韩国",
"doc_count": 3
},
{
"key": "新加坡",
"doc_count": 2
},
{
"key": "印度",
"doc_count": 1
},
{
"key": "德国",
"doc_count": 1
},
{
"key": "日本",
"doc_count": 1
},
{
"key": "朝鲜",
"doc_count": 1
}
]
}
}
}

高亮查询(highlight)

POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_search?q=李克强
{
"query" : {
match_all:{}
},
"highlight" : {
"pre_tags" : ["<font color='red'>", "<b>", "<em>"],
"post_tags" : ["</font>", "<b>", "</em>"],
"fields" : [
{"title" : {}},
{"content" : {
"fragment_size" : 350,
"number_of_fragments" : 3,
"no_match_size": 150
}}
]
}
}
POST http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_search?q=李克强
{
"query" : {
match_all:{}
},
"highlight" : {
"pre_tags" : ["<font color='red'><b><em>"],
"post_tags" : ["</font><b></em>"],
"fields" : [
{"title" : {}},
{"content" : {
"fragment_size" : 350,
"number_of_fragments" : 3,
"no_match_size": 150
}}
]
}
}

删除索引

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/indices-delete-index.html

DELETE http://127.0.0.1:9200/news

创建索引

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/indices-create-index.html

PUT http://127.0.0.1:9200/news

创建或修改mapping

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/indices-put-mapping.html

PUT /{index}/_mapping/{type}
PUT http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_mapping/article
{
"article": {
"properties": {
"pubdate": {
"type": "date",
"format": "dateOptionalTime"
},
"author": {
"type": "string"
},
"content": {
"type": "string"
},
"id": {
"type": "long"
},
"source": {
"type": "string"
},
"title": {
"type": "string"
},
"url": {
"type": "string"
}
}
}
}

查看mapping

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/indices-get-mapping.html

GET http://127.0.0.1:9200/_all/_mapping

GET http://127.0.0.1:9200/_mapping
GET http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_mapping/article

输出:

{
"news": {
"mappings": {
"article": {
"properties": {
"author": {
"type": "string"
},
"content": {
"type": "string"
},
"id": {
"type": "long"
},
"pubdate": {
"type": "date",
"store": true,
"format": "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"
},
"source": {
"type": "string"
},
"title": {
"type": "string"
},
"url": {
"type": "string"
}
}
}
}
}
}

删除mapping

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/indices-delete-mapping.html

[DELETE] /{index}/{type}

[DELETE] /{index}/{type}/_mapping

[DELETE] /{index}/_mapping/{type}
DELETE http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_mapping/article

ansj分词器测试

http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_analyze?analyzer=ansj_index&text=习近平

http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_analyze?analyzer=ansj_index&text=我是中国人

http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_analyze?analyzer=ansj_index&text=汪东兴同志遗体在京火化汪东兴同志病重期间和逝世后,习近平李克强张德江俞正声刘云山王岐山张高丽江泽民胡锦涛等同志,前往医院看望或通过各种形式对汪东兴同志逝世表示沉痛哀悼并向其亲属表示深切慰问新华社北京8月27日电中国共产党的优秀党员

ansj分词器查询

  • 普通查询

http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_search?q=习近平&analyzer=ansj_index&size=50

  • 指定term查询

http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_search?q=content:江泽民&analyzer=ansj_index&size=50

http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_search?q=title:江泽民&analyzer=ansj_index&size=50

http://127.0.0.1:9200/news/_search?q=source:新华网&analyzer=ansj_index&size=50

  • 其中ansj_index为在elasticsearch.yml文件中配置的ansj分词器